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 シックイタケ  漆喰茸
中 国 名 白膏小薄孔菌 bai gao xiao bo kong jun
学  名 Antrodiella gypsea (Yasuda) T. Hatt. et Ryvarden
分  類 坦子菌門 ハラタケ亜門 ハラタケ綱 タマチョレイタケ目(Polyporales)
科  属 マクカワタケ科  Phanerochaetaceae  ニカワオシロイタケ属
 東アジアに分布する。針葉樹(スギなど)の枯木に側着生(無柄)~半背着生~背着生し、柔軟な海綿質。白っぽくて、半背着生~背着生になるものはヒメシロカイメンタケに外観が似ている。孔口が小さく、菌糸にクランプがあることで区別できる。傘は幅2~6㎝(数個連なって、長くなることも多い)、厚さ4㎜以下。背面は灰白色~淡灰褐色、微毛があり、藻類により緑色を帯びる。管孔面は汚白色、孔口は小さく、5~6(6~8)個/㎜。胞子は長さ約4(2.5~3.1) µm、幅約2(1.2~1.8) µm 長楕円形~惰円形。2菌糸型、原菌糸は幅約2µm、クランプがある。傘の骨格菌糸は幅3~4(<2.5)µm。
 ヒメシロカイメンタケOxyporus cuneatus は同じように針葉樹(スギなど)の枯木に半背着生~背着生し、柔軟な海綿質。傘は単生~重生し、半分になったり、長くなったりし、幅5㎝以下、長さ1㎝以下、厚さ5㎜以下、普通、半円形~棚状、背面は白色、灰色~帯黄色になり、密綿毛~伏毛があり、環紋状、平滑、縁も同色。管孔面は白色~アイボリー色、孔口は円形~角形、3~4個/㎜、縁はやや歯牙状、背景は白色、柔らかい繊維状、環紋状、厚さ4㎜以下。管孔層は背景と同色、厚さ2㎜以下。菌糸は1菌糸型、薄壁、分枝が多く、単隔壁、幅2.5~6µm。クランプを欠く。シスチジアには2型あり、若干多く、狭棍棒形~円筒形、先端が硬い外層で覆われ結晶をつけるものとつけないものがあり、長さ17~43µm、幅4~6µm。グロエオシスチジア(粘嚢状体)は子実下層にあり、粘性(屈折性)の物質を含み、円筒形~棍棒形、長さ17~28µm、幅5.5~9µm。胞子は長さ4~4.5µm、幅3~4µmの広惰円形~類球形、無色、平滑、非アミロイド。
 ザイモクタケOxyporus corticola (Fr.) Ryvarden ヨーロッパなど世界に広く分布。主に広葉樹(ポプラ属、トチノキ属、ハンノキ属、カバノキ属、クマシデ属、ブナ属、ヤナギ属,など)に発生し、まれに針葉樹(モミ属、トウヒ属)にも発生する。

(参考 Nunez; M.; Ryvarden L. 2001. East Asian polypores. Synopsis Fungorum. 14:170-522 )
 類似種のシックイタケ(A. gypsea)は同じように白色で、柔らかい繊維状の子実体で、同じように針葉樹に発生する。しかし後者の孔口は大きく、菌糸の特徴が異なる。
 しかしながら、2つの中国の採集品は明らかな多年生である。子実体は非常に変化が多く、ときに典型的な傘があり、ときに半背着生になり、背着生の部分が支配的であり、多数の小さな傘をもつ。大きな丸太の半分を占め、豊富にでき、広範囲に結実する。この孔口は5~6個/㎜より少し小さく、6~8個/㎜。A. gypsea
This polypore remained poorly known, almost forgotten, after its original and simple description in Japanese (Yasuda 1918). Hattori and Ryvarden (1994) transferred it in Antrodiella and prepared an illustrated description. It was reported as an annual species occurring in Japan.
However, two Chinese collections are obviously perennial. Basidiocarps of the species are very variable: sometimes they are pileate, sometimes effused-reflexed so that resupinate parts are dominant but bear numerous small pilei. The species may occupy half of a big log and make abundant and extensive fructifications. According to our measurements the pores in the isotype are a little smaller (6-8 per mm, n=30/1) than they were reported to be (5-6 per mm, Hattori & Ryvarden 1994). In the microscope A. gypsea differs from the other species in the genus by its narrow skeletal hyphae (not exceeding 2.5 μm in diam, vs. over 2.5 μm in diam in most other species of the genus). The thin-walled and subulate cystidia made up another diagnostic character. Basidiospores are scanty in most of the Chinese collections and the isotype, they are hyaline, and can sometimes be found only in phase-contrast illumination. The spores are oblong-ellipsoid, (2.5-) 2.6-3(-3.1) x 1.2-1.7(-1.8) μm L=2.90 μm, W=1.37 μm Q=2.11 (n=30/1, specimen Dai 1033). Junghuhnia conchiformis X.L. Zeng & Ryvarden was described from Changbai Mts. It also inhabits Abies, but has a little bigger spores (2.5-3.5 x 2-2.5 μm, Zeng & Ryvarden 1992). According to the description this taxon would seem to be Antrodiella gypsea. Antrodiella gypsea is common in Changbai Mts. It is apparently widely distributed in northeastern Asia, because we saw lots of specimens of the species from the Russian Far East in TAA. It mostly grows on Abies, commonly on rotten wood, fallen trunks, occasionally on stumps, charred wood or living trees. It is saprotrophic and probably necrotrophic. Specimens examined. - China. Jilin Prov., Antu County, Changbaishan Forest Res., 1993 Dai 833 (0), 835, 1017, 1033 & 1048; 1995 Dai 2034 & 2126. Huadian County, Dongxing, 1993 Dai 1662. Huinan County, Hongqi, 1993 Dai 413 & 1530. Wangqing County, Lianjia, 1993 Dai 1251. Japan. Tofuku, Sendai, 26N.1912 Yasuda (TFM 16663, isotype). Russia. Primorye Terr, Temei Distr., Parmasto (TAA 108874, 150896, 150910 & 151239).

Basidiocarps annual, sessile, effused-reflexed to occasionally resupinate, single to imbricate, soft, cottony, very light in weight; pilei dimidiate to elongated, up to 2 cm long and 1 cm wide
reflexed, pileus on reflexed specimens up to 2 cm wide and 1 cm thick at the base; upper surface tomentose to fibrillose, at first white to cream, later pale straw-coloured, azonate to slightly zonate, often somewhat radially wrinkled; resupinate basidiocarps effused up to 12 cm in longest dimension, soft and leathery when fresh, drying friable; margin fertile, or sterile and then whitish to cream coloured, soft, fimbriate, up to 7 mm wide; pore surface cream coloured to pale tan, pores circular to angular, 2-4 per mm, with dissepiments that quickly become thin and deeply lacerate; context ivory, azonate, soft-fibrous, up to 3 mm thick; tube layer concolorous, up to 5 mm thick; taste mild. Hyphal system monomitic; subicular hyphae hyaline, simple-septate, thin- to very thick-walled, often encrusted, 2-5 μm in diam; tramal hyphae similar. Cystidia of two types; some frequent to rare, cylindric, thin-walled, capitately encrusted, 17-30 x 3-6 μm, simple-septate at the base, not projecting or barely projecting from hymenium; gloeocystidia cylindric to fusiform, thin-walled, with refractive contents, arising in subhymenium and often projecting beyond hymenium, 33-45 x 6-10 μm. Basidia clavate, 4-sterigmate, 15-18 x 5-7 μm, simple-septate at the base. Basidiospores ovoid to broadly ellipsoid, hyaline, smooth, negative in Melzer's reagent, (4.5)5-6 x 3.5-4.5 μm. Type of rot. White rot of conifers and hardwoods. Cultural characteristics. See Nobles 1958. Sexuality. Unknown. Substrata. Rarely on conifers like Abiesモミ属 and Picea,トウヒ属 usually on hardwoods, especially on Populus, but also recorded on Aesculusトチノキ属, Alnus,ハンノキ属 Betulaカバノキ属, Carpinus,クマシデ属 Fagusブナ属, Lavandulトネリコ属a, Salixヤナギ属, Sorbusナナカマド属, and Ulmusシナノキ属. Distribution. Apparently present in all forest regions of Europe. Circumglobal species.

発生時期 通年
大 き さ 小型~中型 直径2~6㎝
栄養摂取 白色腐朽菌 
発生場所 針葉樹(スギなど)の枯木、倒木
分  布 日本、中国、東アジア
食  毒 不食
撮  影 西尾市 14.12.13
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